Spectrophotometric Analysis of Chromium (VI) Levels in Varying Arizona County Water Samples used to Determine which County Water Contains the Most Toxicity when Introduced to Yeast
Keywords:Arizona, drinking water, Chromium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
This study analyzed the Chromium (VI) levels present in three Arizona counties tap water, as represented by the major universities residing within them. Each sample was surveyed using spectrophotometry to determine the contaminant levels of Cr(VI) in the water. Introduction to the yeast strain BY4742 was observed to determine whether the contaminated water dampened culture growth. When compared to the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 0.1 mg/L set by the EPA, Maricopa County contained 14x the amount allowable at 1.4 mg/L. The samples collected for Coconino County and Pima County also displayed contaminant levels higher than the set MCL at 0.3 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Data collected on yeast growth illustrated that Maricopa County was also the most hindering on yeast growth at an average cell count of 97. However, the chosen yeast strain also demonstrated an apparent resistance to Cr(VI) with an average cell count of 120 cells in the Cr(VI) plate. Due to this strains survival in Cr(VI) contaminated water, our initial hypothesis was rejected. Possible generational studies can be done to observe the toxic effects higher levels of Cr(VI) in drinking water have with regard to organismal growth hindrance and accumulation of the element leading to carcinogenic properties. Additional analysis on what other contaminants lie within Arizona counties can be performed, as well.
References or Bibliography
Brachmann, CB, et al (1998). “Yeast Strain BY4742.” The ODIN, 1998, www.the-odin.com/yeast-strain-by4742/.
Chandra, P. & Kulshreshtha, K. Bot. Rev (2004). “Chromium accumulation and toxicity in aquatic vascular plants” The Botanical Review. 70: 313. https://doi.org/10.1663/0006-8101(2004)070[0313:CAATIA]2.0.CO;2
Crow, Patrick. "EPA issues guidance for chromium-6 in drinking water." WaterWorld Feb. 2011: 10+. Busi-ness Insights: Global. Web. 17 Apr. 2019. http://bi.galegroup.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/global/article/GALE|A249957382/1ddc800c39532e10f948b71f3fb00c1e?u=asuniv
Dakiky, M. et. al. (2002). “Selective Adsorption of Chromium(VI) in Industrial Wastewater Using Low-Cost Abundantly Available Adsorbents” Advances in Environmental Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1093-0191(01)00079-X
Diggings, The. (2019). “Mining Claims and Mineral Deposits in Pima County, Arizona” The Diggings. https://thediggings.com/usa/arizona/pima-az019
EPA (1998). “Chromium (VI), CASRN 18540-29-9” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Inte-grated Risk Information System. https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=144
EPA (2017). “Chromium in Drinking Water” United States Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/dwstandardsregulations/chromium-drinking-water
Finley, B. et. al. (2004). “Human health risk and exposure assessment of chromium (VI) in tap water” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. DOI: 10.1080/15287390306388
Guillén-Jiménez, F..M., Morales-Barrera, L., Morales-Jiménez, J. et al. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol (2008) 35: 1277. https://doi-org.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/10.1007/s10295-008-0425-7
Kefa K. Onchoke and Salomey A. Sasu, “Determination of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) Concentrations via Ion Chromatography and UV-Vis Spectrophotometry in Samples Collected from Nacogdoches Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Texas (USA),” Advances in Environmental Chemistry, vol. 2016, Ar-ticle ID 3468635, 10 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3468635.
Ono, BI. & Weng, M. Chromium resistant mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Current Genetics. (1982) 6: 71. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00397644
Phillips, et al (2006). “Planets in a Bottle -- More about Yeast.” NASA, NASA, 3 Nov. 2006, https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/msad16mar99_1b
Udy, M.J. (1956). “Chromium, Vol. I. Chemistry of Chromium and its Compounds” The Electrochemical So-ciety. http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/103/10/232C.3.short
YPD Media. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. (2010) doi:10.1101/570887v1
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Madleen Khamisi, Danielle Falcone, Christina Bentley, Pamela Marshall
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright holder for this article has granted JSR a license to display the article in perpetuity.