Makeup: A Genderless Form of Artistic Expression Explored by Content Creators and Their Followers


  • Sijhana Virakul Chulalongkorn University



makeup, performativity, genderless, Instagram, content creators


Since the fifteenth century, makeup has been gendered and has been ongoingly advertised as such through the ubiquity of modern media. However, with the emergence of newer notions of makeup as expressed by Instagram makeup content creators, the notion of makeup as an art has permeated the media, influencing individuals who follow and/or are exposed to such notions. Furthermore, it is also unreasonable to claim that makeup is gendered, since the notion of gender itself has never been clearly defined. Therefore, makeup instead should be regarded as a genderless form of artistic self-expression. By exploring the history of makeup, conducting phenomenological research on Instagram makeup content creators, and utilizing Butler’s (1988) notion of gender performativity, Negrin’s (2008) writing on gender border crossings, and Kim’s (2013) discussion of everyday reflexivity through the media, I shall discuss why makeup should be regarded as a genderless form of artistic expression. Not only that, but I will also explore ethical consumerist makeup brands, as displayed on the Instagram makeup content creators’ posts, and the notion of “cruelty-free,” and how these notions are related to the post-modernly perceived genderless aspect of makeup.


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How to Cite

Virakul, S. (2023). Makeup: A Genderless Form of Artistic Expression Explored by Content Creators and Their Followers. Journal of Student Research, 11(3).



Research Articles