Stuttering Treatment Approaches from the Past Two Decades: Comprehensive Survey and Review


  • Garima Gupta University of Waterloo
  • Shruti Chandra University of Waterloo
  • Kerstin Dautenhahn University of Waterloo
  • Torrey Loucks University of Alberta



stuttering, communication disorder, stuttering interventions, technology, social robots, artificial intelligence


This comprehensive survey and review presents stuttering treatment approaches that have been reported in the past 20 years in order to highlight the different characteristics in each intervention. The comprehensive survey presented in this article was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines to extract articles on stuttering interventions, published between 01/01/2000 and 01/08/2020. 11 formal programs, 9 fluency induction techniques and 7 adjunct therapy approaches were identified through the comprehensive survey and summarized. The most common results were the Lidcombe program and altered auditory feedback techniques. The comprehensive survey and review presented in this article strives to provide knowledge that can help researchers in other areas, such as Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), acquire a preliminary understanding of stuttering interventions and further the field of stuttering interventions with the introduction of technological advancements.


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Author Biographies

Garima Gupta, University of Waterloo

Garima Gupta is a fourth-year undergraduate student at the University of Waterloo, majoring in psychology with a research-intensive specialization. As a research assistant at SIRRL, she has helped with mapping the potential implementation of social robots as treatment tools for people with social anxiety, stuttering and chronic medical conditions. 

Shruti Chandra, University of Waterloo

Shruti Chandra, Ph.D. is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Social and Intelligent Robotics Research laboratory (SIRRL) at the University of Waterloo, Canada. During her joint Ph.D. at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland and Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal, she implemented social robots to facilitate handwriting improvement in children. Her primary research interests include utilization of social robotics for health and wellbeing promotion. Presently, her research focuses on using social robots for 1) people who stutter 2) children with learning difficulties, 3) fostering intergenerational gameplay, and 4) investigating social learning mechanisms between humans and robots.  

Kerstin Dautenhahn, University of Waterloo


Kerstin Dautenhahn, Ph.D. is a Professor and Canada 150 Research Chair in Intelligent Robotics at the University of Waterloo in Canada where she directs the Social and Intelligent Robotics Research Laboratory (SIRRL). She was elevated to IEEE Fellow for her contributions to Social Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction. Before moving to Canada in 2018, she coordinated the Adaptive Systems Research Group at University of Hertfordshire in the UK since 2000. 

Torrey Loucks, University of Alberta


Torrey Loucks, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor and Research Chair in Stuttering at the University of Alberta. He is the Director of Research at the Institute for Stuttering Treatment and Research. His research focuses on 1) how effective intervention influences speech motor control and neural function in stuttering; and 2) promoting transfer and maintenance of treatment gains through novel strategies and technologies.  



How to Cite

Gupta, G., Chandra, S., Dautenhahn, . K., & Loucks, T. (2022). Stuttering Treatment Approaches from the Past Two Decades: Comprehensive Survey and Review. Journal of Student Research, 11(2).



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