A Review of the Animal and Human Trials of the Ad5-nCoV Vaccine Candidate

Authors

  • Cheng En Xi McMaster University
  • Jasrita Singh Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47611/jsr.v10i1.1159

Keywords:

Vaccine, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Ad5-nCoV

Abstract

Since the COVID-19 outbreak began, there has been an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine to end this global pandemic. One such vaccine is the Ad5-nCoV, developed by CanSino Biologics Inc. This review aims to examine all animal and human trials conducted for this vaccine candidate. Search terms such as “Ad5-nCoV”, “recombinant adenovirus”, “COVID-19”, and “vaccine”, were used in varying combinations in the PubMed database to find published trial reports. It was concluded that Ad5-nCoV can induce a strong immune response in mice and ferret models and offer them protection against the inoculation of SARS-CoV-2. It also has a strong safety profile in human and can induce an adequate immune response in terms of RBD-specific antibodies and T cell responses, while neutralizing antibody response and seroconversion was mediocre. The publish trial reports support the further testing of this vaccine candidate and it is preparing to enter phase 3 clinical trials.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References or Bibliography

WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020 [Internet]. Available from: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020.

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(13):1199-207. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.

COVID-19 Map [Internet]. Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. Available from: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html.

Jackson LA, Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, Roberts PC, Makhene M, Coler RN, et al. An mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 — Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2020;NEJMoa2022483. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483.

Wu S, Zhong G, Zhang J, Shuai L, Zhang Z, Wen Z, et al. A single dose of an adenovirus-vectored vaccine provides protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):4081. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-17972-1.

Kobinger GP, Figueredo JM, Rowe T, Zhi Y, Gao G, Sanmiguel JC, et al. Adenovirus-based vaccine prevents pneumonia in ferrets challenged with the SARS coronavirus and stimulates robust immune responses in macaques. Vaccine. 2007;25(28):5220–31. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.04.065.

Folegatti PM, Bittaye M, Flaxman A, Lopez FR, Bellamy D, Kupke A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus viral-vectored vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, uncontrolled, phase 1 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(7):816–26. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30160-2.

Lai C-C, Shih T-P, Ko W-C, Tang H-J, Hsueh P-R. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55(3):105924. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924.

Corum J, Zimmer C. How the Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Works. The New York Times [Internet]. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/health/johnson-johnson-covid-19-vaccine.html.

Zhu F-C, Li Y-H, Guan X-H, Hou L-H, Wang W-J, Li J-X, et al. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial. The Lancet. 2020;395(10240):1845–54. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31208-3.

Payne S. Immunity and resistance to viruses. In: Viruses [Internet]. Elsevier; 2017. p. 61–71. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B9780128031094000064.

Wajnberg A, Amanat F, Firpo A, Altman DR, Bailey MJ, Mansour M, et al. Robust neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection persist for months. Science. 2020;370(6521):1227–30. doi: 10.1126/science.abd7728.

B cells and antibodies - Molecular Biology of the Cell - NCBI Bookshelf [Internet]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26884/.

Definition of Seroconversion [Internet]. MedicineNet. Available from: https://www.medicinenet.com/seroconversion/definition.htm.

Chi X, Yan R, Zhang J, Zhang G, Zhang Y, Hao M, et al. A neutralizing human antibody binds to the N-terminal domain of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Science. 2020;369(6504):650–5. doi: 10.1126/science.abc6952.

Tai W, He L, Zhang X, Pu J, Voronin D, Jiang S, et al. Characterization of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of 2019 novel coronavirus: implication for development of RBD protein as a viral attachment inhibitor and vaccine. Cell Mol Immunol. 2020;17(6):613–20. doi: 10.1038/s41423-020-0400-4.

Clinical_changes_IK_final.pdf [Internet]. Available from: https://www.who.int/biologicals/expert_committee/Clinical_changes_IK_final.pdf.

Kumar BV, Connors T, Farber DL. Human T cell development, localization, and function throughout life. Immunity. 2018;48(2):202–13. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.01.007.

Nilsson J, Gonçalves I, Edsfeldt A. Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis. In: Early Vascular Aging (EVA) [Internet]. Elsevier; 2015. p. 157–67. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B9780128013878000168.

Luckheeram RV, Zhou R, Verma AD, Xia B. CD4+T Cells: Differentiation and Functions. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012. doi: 10.1155/2012/925135.

Shi J, Wen Z, Zhong G, Yang H, Wang C, Huang B, et al. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2. Science. 2020;368(6494):1016–20. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7015.

Kim Y-I, Kim S-G, Kim S-M, Kim E-H, Park S-J, Yu K-M, et al. Infection and rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets. Cell Host Microbe. 2020;27(5):704-709.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.03.023.

Zhu F-C, Guan X-H, Li Y-H, Huang J-Y, Jiang T, Hou L-H, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. The Lancet. 2020;396(10249):479-88. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31605-6.

Doremalen N van, Lambe T, Spencer A, Belij-Rammerstorfer S, Purushotham JN, Port JR, et al. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination prevents SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques. bioRxiv. 2020;2020.05.13.093195. doi: 10.1101/2020.05.13.093195.

Folegatti PM, Ewer KJ, Aley PK, Angus B, Becker S, Belij-Rammerstorfer S, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. 2020;396(10249):467-78. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31604-4.

Wold WSM, Toth K. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy. Curr Gene Ther. 2013;13(6):421–33.

Smaill F, Jeyanathan M, Smieja M, Medina MF, Thanthrige-Don N, Zganiacz A, et al. A human type 5 adenovirus-based tuberculosis vaccine induces robust T cell responses in humans despite preexisting anti-adenovirus immunity. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5(205):205ra134. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3006843.

CanSino Biologics [Internet]. Trial Site News. Available from: https://www.trialsitenews.com/category/cansino-biologics/

Published

2021-03-31

How to Cite

Xi, C. E., & Singh, J. (2021). A Review of the Animal and Human Trials of the Ad5-nCoV Vaccine Candidate. Journal of Student Research, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.47611/jsr.v10i1.1159

Issue

Section

Review Articles