The Forgotten Third: A Comparison of China, US, and the European Union’s AI Development


  • Théo Abramo Lumiere Education
  • Emma Campbell-Mohn Mentor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology



artificial intelligence, US-China-EU relations, world order, fourth industrial revolution, technology, AI Harware, AI Ecosystem, AI Research


In the 21st century, great power competition dominates the field of international relations. Much has been written about the US and China rivalry for technological dominance, specifically in artificial intelligence. But these analyses are missing one essential player: Europe. I ask will China use its advancements in artificial intelligence to overtake the United States as a superpower, disrupting the US hegemon, just as the United States once did in a post-cold war era with the USSR.  Europe is developing its own strategy and capabilities to rival those of the US and China. I use a cross-country qualitative case study method to examine advancements in artificial intelligence across the US, China, and Europe, specifically France and Germany. To determine each states’ leadership and capabilities, I compare them across their AI dreams, hardware, research, and ecosystem. In this comparison I find that whilst China’s numbers outcompete the US and Europe in total output, there are multiple criterium, notably in top tier development, where there is still a significant gap China needs to close between its rivals. Thus, providing an opportunity for Europe, specifically France and Germany, to develop and lead certain criterium regarding core AI development. This paper contributes to existing scholarship on artificial intelligence and US-China relations by adding the European dimension.


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How to Cite

Abramo, T., & Campbell-Mohn, E. (2021). The Forgotten Third: A Comparison of China, US, and the European Union’s AI Development . Journal of Student Research, 10(3).



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