Conviction, Votes, or Nationalism?

How intrinsic and contextual factors drives cultural policymaking


  • Jinxin Xu Shanghai Foreign Language School Affiliated to SISU
  • Simone Paci Mentor, Columbia University



nation building, intrinsic demand, constituency demand, cultural policy, motivation, cultural diplomacy


Why do policymakers pursue cultural policies? The existing literature presents several potential answers but no study has surveyed them in a comprehensive way. In this essay, I examine a diverse array of factors behind cultural policymaking. Combining domestic and international perspectives, I identify three major motivations: intrinsic demand, constituency demands and nation-building objectives. I employ a mix of qualitative and quantitative evidence to explore the hypotheses stemming from these different decision-making dynamics.


Download data is not yet available.

References or Bibliography

Nye, J. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success In World Politics, PublicAffairs,

Nye Jr, J. S. (2008). Public diplomacy and soft power. The annals of the American academy of political and social science, 616(1), 94-109.

Robert, J. (1989). The logic of images in international relations. Columbia University Press.

Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization: Univ Of Minnesota Press.

Eggeling, K. A. (2017). Cultural diplomacy in Qatar: between ‘virtual enlargement’, national identity construction and elite legitimation. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 23(6), 717-731.

Mark, S. (2008). A comparative study of the cultural diplomacy of Canada, New Zealand and India (Doctoral dissertation, ResearchSpace@ Auckland).

Clarke, D. (2016). Theorising the role of cultural products in cultural diplomacy from a cultural studies perspective. International journal of cultural policy, 22(2), 147-163., “The New History Book of Taiwan”, last modified August 8, 2019,, ‘Chen Shui-bian and the independent policies of Taiwan’, last modified January 6, 2004,

Tsai, S. (2005). Lee Teng-hui and Taiwan's quest for identity. Springer.

Van Vranken Hickey, D., & Li, Y. (2002). Cross-Strait Relations in the Aftermath of the Election of Chen Shui-bian. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 28(4), 201-216.

Shih, F. L. (2021). Taiwan’s culture wars from “re-China-ization” 1 to “Taiwan-ization” and beyond: President Tsai Ing-wen’s cultural policy in long-term perspective. In Taiwan in the Era of Tsai Ing-wen (pp. 284-311). Routledge.

Chun, A. (1994). From nationalism to nationalizing: cultural imagination and state formation in postwar Taiwan. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, (31), 49-69.

Chiang Kaishek, 'Zhongshanlou zhonghua wenhuatang luocheng jinian wen', reprinted in Taiwan Provincial Government (ed.), Zhonghua wenhua fuxing lunji [Essays on China's Cultural Renaissance], (Gaizhao chupanshe, Taipei, 1967).



How to Cite

Xu, J., & Paci, S. (2021). Conviction, Votes, or Nationalism? How intrinsic and contextual factors drives cultural policymaking. Journal of Student Research, 10(3).



HS Research Articles