Twin Study: A Comparison of Nature vs Nurture on Cognitive Skills in Academic Achievement in Identical and Fraternal Twins
Keywords:Twins, Identical Twins, Fraternal Twins, Academic Achievement, Nature vs Nurture
This research study is looking at the academic achievement levels in identical and fraternal twins at the high school level through a measurable cognitive perspective. The purpose is to see if the data collected agrees with past research on how much academic achievement is due to genetics or environmental influences (nature vs nurture). Twins were asked to take three online cognitive tests and score differences were computed to determine statistical significance. I then drew connections on how much the scores were due to genetics while accounting for confounding variables in the environmental influence’s aspect. Therefore, the study concludes that the majority of academic achievement is due to genetics in both identical and fraternal twin sets. This indicates my research supports past research that shows genetics plays the majority factor in academic achievement whether twins are younger or older in age. This study is purely correlational and analyzes data with the twin method which means it in no way proves anything but rather shows a connection between academic achievement and genetics. This research adds more support to the current body of knowledge, but also brings up an important point of how future research can study environmental influences in-depth to see how it influences academic achievement beyond what can be measured in the classroom.
References or Bibliography
Alarcón, M., Knopik, V. S., & DeFries, J. C. (2000). Covariation of Mathematics Achievement and General Cognitive Ability in Twins. Journal of School Psychology, 38(1), 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(99)00037-0
Chertkova, Y., Egorova, M., Zyrianova, N., Parshikova, O., & Fominykh, A. (2014). Academic Achievement in Twins: Extreme Group Analysis. Journal of School Psychology, 146(1), 209-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.116
Duncan, G. (2013). Identical Twins vs Fraternal Twins. Retrieved from https://wstwinregistry.org/for-twins/zygosity/identical-vs-fraternal-twins/
Foch, T.T., Plomin, R. (1980). Specific cognitive abilities in 5- to 12-year-old twins. Behavior Genetics, 10(6), 507–520. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01066220
Haworth, C. M., Dale, P., & Plomin, R. (2008). A Twin Study into the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Academic Performance in Science in nine-year-old Boys and Girls. International Journal of Science Education, 30(8), 1003-1025. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690701324190
Mayo, O. (2009). Early Research on Human Genetics Using the Twin Method: Who Really Invented the Method? Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12(3), 237–245. https://doi.org/10.1375/twin.12.3.237
Pezzullo, T. R., Thorsen, E. E., & Madaus, G. F. (1972). The Heritability of Jensen’s Level I and II and Divergent Thinking. American Educational Research Journal, 9(4), 539–546. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312009004539
Rimfeld, K., Malanchini, M., Krapohl, E., Hannigan, L., Dale, P., Plomin, R. (2018). The stability of educational achievement across school years is largely explained by genetic factors. NPJ Science of Learning, 3(16), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41539-018-0030-0
Torre, L. V., & Testa, S. (2012). Assessing intelligence in children: A research study on twins using the K-ABC. BPA - Applied Psychology Bulletin (Bollettino Di Psicologia Applicata), 263(1), 3–15. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=asn&AN=76099894&site=ehost-live.
Tsou, M. T., Tsou, M. W., Wu, M. P., Liu, J. T. (2008). Academic achievement of twins and singletons in early adulthood: Taiwanese cohort study. The British Medical Journal (BMJ), 337(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a438
Walker, S. O., Petrill, S. A., Spinath, F. M., & Plomin, R. (2010). Nature, nurture and academic achievement: A twin study of teacher assessments of 7-year-olds. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(3), 323–342. https://doi.org/10.1348/0007099041552387
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Amina Dada
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.